Concussion/mTBI is a brain injury that changes the way the brain functions. Most of the time, structural damage does not occur, therefore, imaging of the brain like MRI and CT brain scans are usually normal, but symptoms like headaches, head pressure, confusion, fogginess, dizziness, nausea, delayed responses to questions, and memory-loss typically occur. No two head traumas are exactly the same, and due to the shape of the human skull, there is always a rotational aspect to head traumas that causes the brain to twist and damage the central or inner parts of the brain, leading to the symptoms listed above. Concussions do not always result in loss of consciousness, which is a common mistake when diagnosing.
Hypoxic brain injury is a condition where reduced oxygen supply damages the brain. Oxygen is one of the major fuel supplies of the brain, and if absent for even a small amount of time, can lead to permanent brain cell death. Many conditions can result in a mild form of hypoxic brain injury, such as severe asthma, anemia, ascent from deep water dives, flying in an unpressurized cabin, and intense exercise at high altitudes. More severe cases of hypoxic brain injury stem from situations such as, drowning, choking, strangulation, pre and postnatal traumatic events, smoke inhalation, drug overdoses, and shock. Symptoms can vary greatly depending on the area of the brain affected.
A stroke occurs when there is a lack of blood flow to an area of the brain, leading to brain cell damage and death. There are two types of stroke. The first is from a blockage of blood flow whereas the second is from bleeding. The area of the brain that receives a lack of blood supply or is damaged by a bleed, will result in dysfunction. Some damage can recover, while some damage will remain permanent without proper treatment. Symptoms can occur rapidly, including the inability to move or feel one side of the face or body, difficulty with speech, and vertigo. This is a medical emergency. Once the patient is in a stable condition, they should consider seeking a functional brain analysis with specific brain therapy to regain function.